C21 H23 N3 O2
2-Propenamide, N-hydroxy-3-(4-(((2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl)amino)methyl)phenyl)-, (2E)-
Panobinostat is in Phase 1/2 development as a latency-reversing agent for HIV treatment.
(Compound details obtained from PubChem,1 Treatment Action Group website,2 Farydak Summary of Product Characteristics,3 Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology article,4 and ClinicalTrials.gov5)
What is panobinostat?
Panobinostat is a drug that was previously approved by the U.S.(FDA) under the brand name Farydak for the treatment of a certain type of cancer.6 Panobinostat is currently being studied as an as part of a strategy to cure HIV . As an investigational HIV therapy, panobinostat belongs to a group of drugs called .2,5,7
How do latency-reversing agents work?
Currently, there is no cure for HIV infection. One of the main obstacles to curing HIV infection is that thecan remain hidden and inactive (latent) inside certain cells of the (such as resting ) for many months or even years. The cells where latent HIV hides are known as the . Because HIV in this latent state is inactive, the immune system cannot detect the virus, and the (ARV) drugs that are used to treat HIV have no effect on it.8–10
Latency-reversing agents work by drawing HIV out of its latent state within resting CD4 cells. Once the latent HIV is reactivated, the CD4 cells that harbor the virus are more likely to be recognized and killed by the body’s immune system or may be killed by certain HIV therapies, such as those that can enhance the body’s What is a Latent HIV Reservoir? fact sheet.to HIV. Researchers hope that the combined use of panobinostat and other HIV-fighting strategies, including ongoing (ART), may fully eliminate HIV from the body.8-10 To learn more, see the HIVinfo
Select clinical trials of panobinostat
Study Names: CLEAR; NCT01680094
Status: This study has been completed.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of panobinostat in reactivating latent HIV within resting CD4 cells.7
Selected Study Results: Results published in Lancet HIV (2014) showed that panobinostat administered to participants with on ART was effective in reactivating latent HIV. However, panobinostat did not reduce the size of the latent HIV reservoir.11
Additional Published Material:
- IAS Towards an HIV Cure Symposium, 2013: Cyclic panobinostat (LBH589) dosing in HIV-1 patients: findings from the CLEAR trial
- CROI, 2015: Panobinostat broadly activates latent HIV-1 proviruses in patients
Study Names: ACTIVATE; NCT02471430
Status: This study is currently active, but not recruiting participants.
Location: United States
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether a combination of the HDAC inhibitor panobinostat and the peginterferon alfa-2a can reduce the latent HIV reservoir.5
Selected Study Results: Results published at CROI 2022 indicated that panobinostat reactivated latent HIV and interferon alfa-2a induced immune activation in participants with viral suppression on ART. The combination regimen, however, produced no change in latent HIV reservoir size.12
For more details on the studies listed above, see the Health Professional version of this drug summary.
What side effects might panobinostat cause?
One goal of HIV research is to identify new drugs that have fewer side effects. In the CLEAR study (NCT01680094) discussed under the previous section, all panobinostat-related side effects were mild in severity. The most common side effect related to panobinostat was fatigue. Some minor changes in counts and counts were seen, but these changes were temporary.11
Because panobinostat is still being studied, information on possible side effects of the drug is not complete. As testing of panobinostat continues, additional information on possible side effects will be gathered.
Where can I get more information about clinical trials studying panobinostat?
More information about panobinostat-related research studies is available from . (The ClinicalTrials.gov search can be modified so that you can get results that better match your interests. To learn more about the ClinicalTrials.gov search features, please see How to Search.)
Some clinical trials may be looking for volunteer participants. Your health care provider can help you decide whether participating in a NIH Clinical Research Trials and You.is right for you. For more information, visit
- National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Summary for CID 6918837, Panobinostat. Accessed June 28, 2023
- Treatment Action Group website. Research toward a cure trials. Accessed June 28, 2023
- Secura Bio Limited. Farydak 10mg hard capsules summary of product characteristics (SmPC), March 11, 2021. Electronic Medicines Compendium (EMC). Accessed June 28, 2023
- Masetti R, Serravalle S, Biagi C, Pession A. The role of HDACs inhibitors in childhood and adolescence acute leukemias. J Biomed Biotechnol. Published online Article ID 148046 2011. doi:10.1155/2011/148046. Accessed June 28, 2023
- Massachusetts General Hospital. A Phase I-II pilot study to assess the safety and efficacy of combined administration with pegylated interferon-alpha2a and the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) panobinostat for reducing the residual reservoir of HIV-1 infected cells in cART-treated HIV-1 positive individuals. In: ClinicalTrials.gov. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). Registered on June 11, 2015. NLM Identifier: NCT02471430. Accessed June 28, 2023
- Secura Bio, Inc.: Press Release, dated November 30, 2021. Secura Bio announces U.S. withdrawal of FARYDAK ® (panobinostat) NDA. Accessed June 28, 2023
- University of Aarhus. The safety and efficacy of the histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat for purging HIV-1 from the latent reservoir (CLEAR) study. In: ClinicalTrials.gov. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). Registered on September 3, 2012. NLM Identifier: NCT01680094. Accessed June 28, 2023
- Siliciano RF, Greene WC. HIV latency. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2011;1(1):a007096. Accessed June 28, 2023
- Rasmussen TA, Tolstrup M, Winckelmann A, Østergaard L, Søgaard OS. Eliminating the latent HIV reservoir by reactivation strategies. Hum Vaccines Immunother. 2013;9(4):790–799. Accessed June 28, 2023
- National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). HIV viral eradication. Accessed June 28, 2023
- Rasmussen TA, Tolstrup M, Brinkmann CR, et al. Panobinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, for latent-virus reactivation in HIV-infected patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy: a Phase 1/2, single group, clinical trial. Lancet HIV. 2014;1(1):e13-21. doi:10.1016/S2352-3018(14)70014-1. Accessed June 28, 2023
- Armani-Tourret M, Hartana CA, Rassadkina Y, et al. HIV-1 viral reservoir disruption with panobinostat and IFN-⍺. Poster presented at: Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI)); February 12-16, 2022; Virtual. Poster 357. Accessed June 28, 2023
Last Reviewed: June 28, 2023