On July 23, 2022, the World Health Organization declared monkeypox as a global health emergency. The first person identified in the current outbreak in the Unites States was confirmed in May. This serious emerging outbreak is currently more common among men who have sex with men than the general population. While there are suggestive reports that monkeypox could be an opportunistic infection in people with HIV, there are yet no definitive data that monkeypox differentially infects people with or without HIV. People with advanced HIV or who are not virologically suppressed with antiretroviral therapy can be at increased risk of severe disease related to monkeypox virus infection.
Post-exposure prophylaxis and antiviral treatments are available for people exposed to monkeypox or diagnosed with monkeypox virus infection. The antiviral treatments recommended for monkeypox by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have few interactions with antiretroviral therapy. An effective, Food and Drug Administration-approved live attenuated, non-replicating smallpox and monkeypox vaccine (JYNNEOS) is currently available in limited settings. Vaccination with JYNNEOS is considered safe for people with HIV.
Currently the best source of information about management of monkeypox can be found on the CDC webpage Clinical Considerations for Treatment and Prophylaxis of Monkeypox Virus Infection in People with HIV.