Cryptosporidiosis is caused by various species of the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium, which infect the small bowel mucosa, and, if symptomatic, the infection typically causes diarrhea. Cryptosporidium can also infect other gastrointestinal and extraintestinal sites, especially in individuals whose immune systems are suppressed. Advanced immunosuppression—typically CD4 T lymphocyte cell (CD4) counts <100 cells/mm3—is associated with the greatest risk for prolonged, severe, or extraintestinal cryptosporidiosis.1 The three species that most commonly infect humans are Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium meleagridis. Infections are usually caused by one species, but a mixed infection is possible.2,3
Cryptosporidiosis remains a common cause of chronic diarrhea in patients with AIDS in developing countries, with up to 74% of diarrheal stools from patients with AIDS demonstrating the organism.4 In developed countries with low rates of environmental contamination and widespread availability of potent antiretroviral therapy, the incidence of cryptosporidiosis has decreased. In the United States, the incidence of cryptosporidiosis in patients with HIV is now <1 case per 1,000 person-years.5
Infection occurs through ingestion of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Viable oocysts in feces can be transmitted directly through contact with humans or animals infected with Cryptosporidium, particularly those with diarrhea. Cryptosporidium oocysts can contaminate recreational water sources, such as swimming pools and lakes, and public water supplies and may persist despite standard chlorination. Person-to-person transmission of Cryptosporidium is common, especially among sexually active men who have sex with men.
Patients with cryptosporidiosis most commonly have acute or subacute onset of watery diarrhea, which may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and lower abdominal cramping. Disease severity can range from asymptomatic to profuse, cholera-like diarrhea.6 More severe symptoms tend to occur in immune-suppressed patients, whereas transient diarrhea alone is typical in patients with competent immune systems. Fever is present in approximately one-third of patients, and malabsorption is common. The epithelium of the biliary tract and the pancreatic duct can be infected with Cryptosporidium, leading to sclerosing cholangitis and to pancreatitis secondary to papillary stenosis, particularly among patients with prolonged disease and low CD4 counts.7 Pulmonary Cryptosporidium infections also have been reported, and may be under-recognized.8,9
Diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis has traditionally been made by microscopic identification of the oocysts in stool with acid-fast staining or direct immunofluorescence, which offers higher sensitivity.10 Concentration methods (e.g., formalin-ethyl acetate) may facilitate diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis. Other diagnostic methods are being increasingly used. Antigen-detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or immunochromatographic tests also is useful; depending on the specific test, sensitivities reportedly range from 66% to 100%. However, some immunochromatographic tests are plagued by false-positive results.11 Multiplex molecular methods are increasingly used for diagnosis, and can identify a greater number of cases than microscopic methods.10,12 Cryptosporidial enteritis also can be diagnosed from small sections of tissue from intestinal biopsy.
A single stool specimen is usually adequate to diagnosis cryptosporidiosis in individuals with profuse diarrheal illness, whereas repeat stool sampling is recommended for those with milder disease.
Individuals with HIV should be educated and counseled about the different ways that Cryptosporidium can be transmitted (BIII). Modes of transmission include direct contact with people, including diapered children, and animals infected with Cryptosporidium; swallowing contaminated water during recreational activities; drinking contaminated water; and eating contaminated food.
Scrupulous handwashing can reduce the risk of diarrhea in individuals with HIV, including diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium.13 Patients with HIV should be advised to wash their hands after potential contact with human feces (including after diapering small children). Handwashing also should be recommended in association with the following activities: after handling pets or other animals, after gardening or any other contact with soil, before preparing food or eating, and before and after sex (BIII). Individuals with HIV should avoid unprotected sex, especially practices that could lead to direct (e.g., oral-anal sex) or indirect (e.g., penile-anal sex) contact with feces. They should be advised to use prophylactic barrier methods such as condoms and dental dams during sex to reduce such exposures (BIII).
Individuals with HIV—particularly those with CD4 counts <200 cells/mm3—should avoid direct contact with diarrhea or stool from pets (BIII). They should wear gloves when handling feces or cleaning areas that might have been contaminated by feces from pets (BIII). Individuals with HIV should also limit or avoid direct exposure to calves and lambs (BII). Paying attention to hygiene and avoiding direct contact with stool are important when visiting farms or petting zoos or other premises where animals are housed or exhibited.
Individuals with HIV should not drink water directly from lakes or rivers (AIII). Waterborne infection also can result from swallowing water during recreational activities. Individuals with HIV should be cautioned that lakes, rivers, salt-water beaches, some swimming pools, recreational water parks, and ornamental water fountains may be contaminated with human or animal waste that contains Cryptosporidium. They should avoid swimming in water that is likely contaminated and should avoid swallowing water while swimming or playing in recreational water (BIII).
Outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have been linked to drinking water from municipal water supplies. During outbreaks or in other situations in which a community boil water advisory is issued, boiling water for at least 1 minute will eliminate the risk for cryptosporidiosis (AIII). Using submicron personal-use water filters (home or office types) or bottled water also may reduce the risk of infection from water from a municipal source or a well (BII).
For persons with low CD4 counts, the magnitude of the risk of acquiring cryptosporidiosis from drinking water in a non-outbreak setting is uncertain but is likely small. Available data are inadequate to recommend that all persons with HIV boil water or avoid drinking tap water in non-outbreak settings. However, individuals with HIV may consider drinking only filtered water (CIII), despite the complexities involved in selecting appropriate water filters, the lack of enforceable standards for removal of Cryptosporidium oocysts, the costs of the products, and the difficulty of using the products consistently. Note that ice made from contaminated tap water also can be a source of infection.
Patients with HIV with low CD4 counts should be cautious about eating raw oysters because cryptosporidial oocysts can survive in oysters for >2 months and have been found in oysters harvested from certain commercial oyster beds (CIII). In the hospital setting, standard precautions for use of gloves and for handwashing after removal of gloves should be sufficient to prevent transmission of cryptosporidiosis from an infected patient to a susceptible individual with HIV (BIII). Because of the potential for fomite transmission, some specialists recommend that patients with HIV, especially individuals who are severely immunocompromised, not share a room with a patient with cryptosporidiosis (CIII).
Individuals with HIV who travel to developing countries should be warned to avoid drinking tap water or using tap water to brush their teeth (BIII). They should also avoid using ice that is not made from bottled water and consuming raw fruits or vegetables that may have been washed in tap water (BIII).
Individuals with HIV also should avoid other sources of Cryptosporidium oocysts as much as possible (BIII). This includes avoiding directly working with people with diarrhea; with farm animals such as cattle and sheep; and with domestic pets that are very young or have diarrhea. If exposure is unavoidable, gloves should be worn, and good hand hygiene observed.
Because chronic cryptosporidiosis occurs primarily in patients with advanced immunodeficiency, initiation of ART before the patient becomes severely immunosuppressed should prevent this disease (AII). Rifabutin and possibly clarithromycin taken for Mycobacterium avium complex prophylaxis have been found to protect against cryptosporidiosis.14,15 Rifaximin, which is used for prevention of travelers’ diarrhea, also has been used to treat cryptosporidial diarrhea. However, it is unclear whether rifaximin can protect against cryptosporidiosis.16 Data are insufficient, however, to warrant a recommendation to use rifaximin, rifabutin, or clarithromycin as chemoprophylaxis for cryptosporidiosis.
In the setting of severe immune suppression, ART with immune restoration to a CD4 count >100 cells/mm3 usually leads to resolution of clinical cryptosporidiosis17-20 and is the mainstay of treatment. Patients not already taking antiretrovirals who develop cryptosporidiosis should be started on ART as part of the initial management of cryptosporidiosis (AII). Management should also include symptomatic treatment of diarrhea with anti-motility agents (AIII). Tincture of opium may be more effective than loperamide (CIII). Octreotide, a synthetic octapeptide analog of naturally occurring somatostatin that is approved to treat secreting tumor-induced diarrhea, is no more effective than other oral antidiarrheal agents and is usually not recommended (CII).21 Because diarrhea can cause lactase deficiency, patients should avoid milk products (CIII).
Rehydration and repletion of electrolyte losses by either the oral or intravenous route are important. Stool volume in patients with AIDS with severe diarrhea can exceed 10 L/day; managing the diarrhea often requires intensive support. Oral rehydration should be pursued aggressively with oral rehydration solutions (AIII). Most patients can be treated with enteral nutrition; total parenteral nutrition is rarely indicated (CIII).
Patients with biliary tract involvement may require endoscopic retrograde choledocoduodenoscopy for diagnosis. They may also benefit from sphincterotomy, stenting, or both.7,22
Several agents, including nitazoxanide, paromomycin, and spiramycin, have been investigated in small, randomized controlled clinical trials of adults with HIV. No pharmacologic or immunologic therapy directed specifically against Cryptosporidium has been shown to be consistently effective when used without ART.23
Nitazoxanide is an orally administered nitrothiazole benzamide with in vivo activity against a broad range of helminths, bacteria, and protozoa. Nitazoxanide is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of cryptosporidiosis in children and adults. Nitazoxanide 500 mg administered twice daily for 3 days to adults without HIV with cryptosporidiosis resulted in higher rates of diarrhea resolution and oocyst-free stools than placebo.24,25 In one study, adults with HIV with cryptosporidiosis with CD4 counts >50 cells/mm3 were treated with nitazoxanide 500 mg to 1,000 mg twice daily for 14 days; the nitazoxanide treatment group had substantially higher rates of parasitological cure and resolution of diarrhea than the placebo group.26 Efficacy of nitazoxanide for the treatment of cryptosporidial diarrhea in children with HIV was not confirmed, however, in two randomized trials in children.27,28 Data from a compassionate use program before the advent of potent ART, which included primarily white male adults with median CD4 counts < 50 cells/mm3, reported that a majority of patients experienced some degree of clinical response (reduction in frequency of total stool and of liquid stools), usually within the first week of treatment.29 Adverse events associated with nitazoxanide are limited and typically mild, and no important drug-drug interactions have been reported. Because of the clinical significance of cryptosporidiosis, many experts will institute a trial of nitazoxanide or paromomycin in conjunction with ART, but never instead of ART, despite the paucity of evidence that such antiparasitic therapy is beneficial (CIII).
Paromomycin is a non-absorbable aminoglycoside indicated for the treatment of intestinal amebiasis but not specifically approved for cryptosporidiosis. Paromomycin in high doses is effective for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis in animal models. A meta-analysis of 11 published studies of paromomycin in humans reported a response rate of 67%; however, there were few cures, relapses were common, and long-term success rates were only 33%.22 Two randomized trials comparing paromomycin with placebo demonstrated limited effectiveness of the drug among patients with AIDS and cryptosporidiosis.23,30,31 One case series suggested a better response rate in patients receiving paromomycin along with ART.32 Paromomycin may be used instead of nitazoxanide in conjunction with ART, but never instead of ART (CIII).
Special Considerations with Regard to Starting ART
As noted above, patients with cryptosporidiosis should be offered ART as part of the initial management of cryptosporidiosis (AII). In vitro and in animal models, PIs can inhibit Cryptosporidium, but there is no clinical evidence that PI-based ART is preferable in patients with documented cryptosporidiosis (CIII).33,34
Monitoring of Response to Therapy and Adverse Events (including IRIS)
Patients should be monitored closely for signs and symptoms of volume depletion, electrolyte imbalance, weight loss, and malnutrition. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) has been described in association with 3 cases of extra-intestinal cryptosporidiosis.35
Managing Treatment Failure
Supportive treatment and optimization of ART to achieve full virologic suppression are the main approaches to managing treatment failure (AIII). The clinical response rather than results of stool tests should be used to guide the response to therapy. Some authorities advocate adding anti-parasitic drugs (CIII), such as nitazoxanide or paromomycin alone or in combination with azithromycin, as well as optimizing ART in patients with treatment failure and cryptosporidiosis.36,37
No pharmacologic interventions are known to be effective in preventing the recurrence of cryptosporidiosis.
Special Considerations During Pregnancy
Rehydration and initiation of ART are the mainstays of initial treatment of cryptosporidiosis during pregnancy, as they are in non-pregnant women (AII). Pregnancy should not preclude the use of ART and in fact is always an indication for ART. Nitazoxanide is not teratogenic in animals but no data on use in human pregnancy are available. Nitazoxanide can be used in pregnancy after the first trimester in women with severe symptoms (CIII). Limited information is available about the teratogenic potential of paromomycin, but oral administration is associated with minimal systemic absorption, which may minimize potential risk. Paromomycin can be used in pregnancy after the first trimester in women with severe symptoms (CIII). Loperamide is poorly absorbed and has not been associated with birth defects in animal studies. However, one study identified an increased risk of congenital malformations, and specifically hypospadias, among 683 women with exposure to loperamide early in pregnancy.38 Therefore, loperamide should be avoided in the first trimester, unless benefits are felt to outweigh potential risks (CIII). Loperamide is the preferred anti-motility agent in late pregnancy (CIII). Opiate exposure in late pregnancy has been associated with neonatal respiratory depression, and chronic exposure may result in neonatal withdrawal, therefore tincture of opium is not recommended in late pregnancy (AIII).38
Preventing Chronic Cryptosporidiosis
Preferred Management Strategies:
Key: ART = antiretroviral therapy; CD4 = CD4 T lymphocyte cell; IV = intravenous; PO = orally
- Flanigan T, Whalen C, Turner J, et al. Cryptosporidium infection and CD4 counts. Ann Intern Med. 1992;116(10):840-842. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1348918.
- Cama VA, Ross JM, Crawford S, et al. Differences in clinical manifestations among Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in HIV-infected persons. J Infect Dis. 2007;196(5):684-691. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17674309.
- Wanyiri JW, Kanyi H, Maina S, et al. Cryptosporidiosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Kenya: clinical features, epidemiology, molecular characterization and antibody responses. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;91(2):319-328. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24865675.
- Wang RJ, Li JQ, Chen YC, Zhang LX, Xiao LH. Widespread occurrence of Cryptosporidium infections in patients with HIV/AIDS: epidemiology, clinical feature, diagnosis, and therapy. Acta Trop. 2018;187:257-263. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30118699.
- Buchacz K, Lau B, Jing Y, et al. Incidence of AIDS-defining opportunistic infections in a multicohort analysis of HIV-infected persons in the United States and Canada, 2000-2010. J Infect Dis. 2016;214(6):862-872. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27559122.
- Checkley W, White AC, Jr., Jaganath D, et al. A review of the global burden, novel diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccine targets for cryptosporidium. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015;15(1):85-94. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25278220.
- Naseer M, Dailey FE, Juboori AA, Samiullah S, Tahan V. Epidemiology, determinants, and management of AIDS cholangiopathy: a review. World J Gastroenterol. 2018;24(7):767-774. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29467548.
- Sponseller JK, Griffiths JK, Tzipori S. The evolution of respiratory cryptosporidiosis: evidence for transmission by inhalation. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2014;27(3):575-586. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24982322.
- Mor SM, Ascolillo LR, Nakato R, et al. Expectoration of cryptosporidium parasites in sputum of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive and -negative adults. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018;98(4):1086-1090. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29405104.
- Garcia LS, Arrowood M, Kokoskin E, et al. Laboratory diagnosis of parasites from the gastrointestinal tract. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2018;31(1). Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29142079.
- Roellig DM, Yoder JS, Madison-Antenucci S, et al. Community laboratory testing for cryptosporidium: multicenter study retesting public health surveillance stool samples positive for cryptosporidium by rapid cartridge assay with direct fluorescent antibody testing. PLoS One. 2017;12(1):e0169915. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28085927.
- Ryan U, Paparini A, Oskam C. New technologies for detection of enteric parasites. Trends Parasitol. 2017;33(7):532-546. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28385423.
- Huang DB, Zhou J. Effect of intensive handwashing in the prevention of diarrhoeal illness among patients with AIDS: a randomized controlled study. J Med Microbiol. 2007;56(Pt 5):659-663. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17446290.
- Holmberg SD, Moorman AC, Von Bargen JC, et al. Possible effectiveness of clarithromycin and rifabutin for cryptosporidiosis chemoprophylaxis in HIV disease. HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) Investigators. JAMA. 1998;279(5):384-386. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9459473.
- Fichtenbaum CJ, Zackin R, Feinberg J, Benson C, Griffiths JK, AIDS Clinical Trials Group New Works Concept Sheet Team 064. Rifabutin but not clarithromycin prevents cryptosporidiosis in persons with advanced HIV infection. AIDS. 2000;14(18):2889-2893. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11153670.
- Gathe JC, Jr., Mayberry C, Clemmons J, Nemecek J. Resolution of severe cryptosporidial diarrhea with rifaximin in patients with AIDS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008;48(3):363-364. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18580340.
- Maggi P, Larocca AM, Quarto M, et al. Effect of antiretroviral therapy on cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2000;19(3):213-217. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10795595.
- Miao YM, Awad-El-Kariem FM, Franzen C, et al. Eradication of cryptosporidia and microsporidia following successful antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000;25(2):124-129. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11103042.
- Schmidt W, Wahnschaffe U, Schafer M, et al. Rapid increase of mucosal CD4 T cells followed by clearance of intestinal cryptosporidiosis in an AIDS patient receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Gastroenterology. 2001;120(4):984-987. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11231952.
- Dillingham RA, Pinkerton R, Leger P, et al. High early mortality in patients with chronic acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diarrhea initiating antiretroviral therapy in Haiti: a case-control study. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;80(6):1060-1064. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19478276.
- Simon DM, Cello JP, Valenzuela J, et al. Multicenter trial of octreotide in patients with refractory acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated diarrhea. Gastroenterology. 1995;108(6):1753-1760. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7768380.
- Hashmey R, Smith NH, Cron S, Graviss EA, Chappell CL, White AC Jr. Cryptosporidiosis in Houston, Texas. a report of 95 cases. Medicine (Baltimore). 1997;76(2):118-139. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9100739.
- Cabada MM, White AC, Jr. Treatment of cryptosporidiosis: do we know what we think we know? Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2010;23(5):494-499. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20689422.
- Rossignol JF, Ayoub A, Ayers MS. Treatment of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of Nitazoxanide. J Infect Dis. 2001;184(1):103-106. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11398117.
- Rossignol JF, Kabil SM, el-Gohary Y, Younis AM. Effect of nitazoxanide in diarrhea and enteritis caused by Cryptosporidium species. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;4(3):320-324. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16527695.
- Rossignol JF, Hidalgo H, Feregrino M, et al. A double-'blind' placebo-controlled study of nitazoxanide in the treatment of cryptosporidial diarrhoea in AIDS patients in Mexico. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1998;92(6):663-666. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10326116.
- Amadi B, Mwiya M, Sianongo S, et al. High dose prolonged treatment with nitazoxanide is not effective for cryptosporidiosis in HIV positive Zambian children: a randomised controlled trial. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:195. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19954529.
- Amadi B, Mwiya M, Musuku J, et al. Effect of nitazoxanide on morbidity and mortality in Zambian children with cryptosporidiosis: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2002;360(9343):1375-1380. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12423984.
- Rossignol JF. Nitazoxanide in the treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related cryptosporidiosis: results of the United States compassionate use program in 365 patients. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006;24(5):887-894. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16918894.
- White AC, Jr., Chappell CL, Hayat CS, Kimball KT, Flanigan TP, Goodgame RW. Paromomycin for cryptosporidiosis in AIDS: a prospective, double-blind trial. J Infect Dis. 1994;170(2):419-424. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8035029.
- Hewitt RG, Yiannoutsos CT, Higgs ES, et al. Paromomycin: no more effective than placebo for treatment of cryptosporidiosis in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. AIDS Clinical Trial Group. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;31(4):1084-1092. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11049793.
- Maggi P, Larocca AM, Ladisa N, et al. Opportunistic parasitic infections of the intestinal tract in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: is the CD4(+) count so important? Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33(9):1609-1611. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11588705.
- Hommer V, Eichholz J, Petry F. Effect of antiretroviral protease inhibitors alone, and in combination with paromomycin, on the excystation, invasion and in vitro development of Cryptosporidium parvum. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003;52(3):359-364. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12888587.
- Mele R, Gomez Morales MA, Tosini F, Pozio E. Indinavir reduces Cryptosporidium parvum infection in both in vitro and in vivo models. Int J Parasitol. 2003;33(7):757-764. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12814654.
- Sullivan T, Reese L, Huprikar S, Lee M. Pulmonary cryptosporidiosis and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: a case report and review. Int J STD AIDS. 2013;24(4):333-334. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23970667.
- Balkhair A, Ahamed S, Sankhla D. Unmasking Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS): a report of five cases and review of the literature. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2011;11(1):95-103. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21509214.
- Beausejour Y, Fortin C, Ghannoum M, Lavergne V. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome following cryptosporidial cholangitis. AIDS. 2011;25(14):1801-1803. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21876390.
- Kallen B, Nilsson E, Otterblad Olausson P. Maternal use of loperamide in early pregnancy and delivery outcome. Acta Paediatr. 2008;97(5):541-545. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18394096.
Preventing Chronic Cryptosporidiosis
Preferred Management Strategies:
Key: ART = antiretroviral therapy; CD4 = CD4 T lymphocyte cell; IV = intravenous; PO = orally